The BBC has revealed its list of 100 inspiring and influential women from around the world for 2019.
This year 100 Women is asking: what would the future look like if it were driven by women?
From climate change activist Greta Thunberg, to trans woman Nisha Ayub who was put into a male prison aged 21, many on the list are driving change on behalf of women everywhere. They give us their vision of what life could look like in 2030.
Others, such as the "ghost" politician defying the mafia, and the footballer battling misogyny, are using their extraordinary personal experiences to blaze a path for those who follow.
The BBC's 100 women of 2019
100 women in total
Precious Adams spent so much time dancing round the living room as a child, that her mum signed her up for dance lessons. She trained at several top ballet schools, including the National Ballet School of Canada, the Princess Grace Academy in Monaco and the Bolshoi Ballet Academy in Moscow.
Indian-admin KashmirHuman rights activist
Parveena is known as the "Iron lady of Kashmir". Her teenage son disappeared in 1990, at the height of an uprising against Indian rule in Kashmir.
Known as Italy's "ghost" politician, Piera Aiello ran for office with her face covered by a veil due to threats from the mafia. In 2018, after winning her seat as an anti-mafia candidate, she finally revealed her face to the public.
Jasmin is Rohingya, described by the UN as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. She was born in a refugee camp in Bangladesh just after her father died.
Contemporary artist Manal AlDowayan's work explores invisibility, archives, memory and the representation of women in her country. From black and white photographs of Saudi Arabia's female workforce, to a frozen flock of birds imprinted with the permission slip Saudi women require to travel.
In 2016, Kimia became the first Iranian woman to win a medal at the Olympics since the country began competing in 1948. As a taekwondo athlete, Kimia is credited with "emboldening Iranian girls and women to push the boundaries of personal freedom" by the UK's Financial Times newspaper.
KuwaitWomen's rights activist
Dr Alanoud Alsharekh is a founding member of the Abolish 153 campaign, calling for Kuwait's "honour-killing" law to be scrapped.
When war broke out in architect Marwa Al-Sabouni's home city of Homs, Syria, she refused to leave.
Rida Al Tubuly
Rida Al Tubuly is one of many women pushing for gender equality - but she's doing it from a warzone. Her organisation, Together We Build It, pushes for women's involvement in solving Libya's conflict.
Tabata Amaral, one of Brazil's youngest congresswomen, came to national attention this year when a video of her grilling the country's education minister went viral.
MexicoActress/Human rights activist
Yalitza Aparicio trained as a primary school teacher, but ended up being cast as the lead in Alfonso Cuarón's Oscar-winning film Roma after accompanying her sister to the audition.
Born in Lebanon but raised in the US, poet Dayna Ash was shocked when she was advised to hide her sexuality on her return to Beirut at 16.
Dina is the fastest woman in British history and the first British woman to win a major global sprint title.
USProject manager NASA
NASA's MiMi Aung is responsible for a team designing a helicopter to fly on Mars. After travelling alone from Myanmar to the US to further her education at 16, MiMi is now project manager at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology.
At 21, trans woman Nisha Ayub was sentenced to three months in a male prison under a provision of Sharia law which prohibits "a male person wearing women's attire or posing as a woman in a public space.”
Raised on a farm in Uganda, Judith Bakirya became the first of her peers to win a scholarship to a prestigious girls' boarding school, going on to obtain a masters in the UK and a job in the City.
Branded as 21st Century building blocks, Ayah Bdeir's littleBits company makes kits of electronic blocks that snap together with magnets, allowing anyone to "build, prototype, and invent".
Buddhism is Thailand's most common religion, with some 300,000 Buddhist monks. But female monks - known as bhikkhunis - aren't recognised, and are banned from being ordained on Thai soil.
Feminist medical doctor Mabel Bianco has spent four decades putting women's health, reproductive rights, abortion, and HIV/AIDS on the public policy agenda in Argentina.
Raya is founder and CEO of the award-winning Awecademy, an organisation with a mission to use education to improve the world.
Katie was a key leader on the team that developed algorithms and techniques to recover the first-ever image of a black hole.
After recounting not being able to reach the locks on toilet doors in a candid speech in 2017, Sinéad Burke quickly became one of the world's most influential disability activists. Calling for all design to be more accessible, she has challenged some of the biggest names in the fashion industry - including Anna Wintour - to make clothing more inclusive.
Author of Contraceptive Justice: Why We Need a Male Pill, bioethicist Lisa Campo-Engelstein's work aims to improve women's lives through finding new methods of contraception.
Scarlett is co-founder of The Pink Protest, an online community of activists who supported the successful #FreePeriods campaign to get free menstrual products in schools in England.
Delivering post in rural Wales, Ella was shocked by the amount of discarded plastic on the streets.
UKArtist and writer
British-Indian Sharan is founder and editor-in-chief of Burnt Roti magazine, focusing on mental and sexual health for young South Asians, and LGBTQ rights. Aided by crowdfunding, she published her first print issue in April 2016 and has since launched an online version.
Salwa Eid Naser
Salwa Eid Naser stunned the field in the 400m final in Doha this year by running faster than any woman has done for more than three decades.
Rana El Kaliouby
Rana el Kaliouby is a pioneer of artificial emotional intelligence, or Emotion AI. Her start-up Affectiva has developed software that can understand emotions by analysing facial expressions through a camera.
Maria Fernanda Espinosa
EcuadorUN General Assembly
When Maria Fernanda Espinosa became president of the UN General Assembly, she became only the fourth woman to hold the position in the body's history - and the first from Latin America and the Caribbean.
South AfricaWomen's rights activist
As South Africa faces rising rates of murder and rape against women and girls, Lucinda has emerged as a voice for women. She leads nationwide marches, rallying thousands of women in the streets of Cape Town, challenging government to translate policy into action.
Sister Gerard Fernandez
SingaporeRoman Catholic nun
Sister Gerard is a Roman Catholic nun in Singapore, who worked for three decades as a death row counsellor.
Overcoming a fear of water after falling into an adult pool as a toddler, Bethany Firth burst onto the swimming scene at the London 2012 Paralympics. Bethany, who has learning disabilities, is now a four-time Paralympic gold medallist and multiple world record holder, and was Britain's most decorated athlete at the Rio 2016 Paralympics.
Owl - aka Ugla Stefanía Kristjönudóttir Jónsdóttir - is a journalist, writer and trans campaigner. They are the co-director of My Genderation, a film project focusing on trans lives and trans experiences.
After storming to victory in 10.71 seconds at the women's 100m final in Doha in September 2019, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce now boasts more 100m world championship titles than Usain Bolt.
At 26, Zarifa Ghafari is one of Afghanistan's first female mayors. The country's president appointed her mayor of Maidan Wardag, where support for the Taliban is widespread. She took the job despite it being too dangerous for her to live there - her office was mobbed by angry men on her first day.
Human rights lawyer Jalila specialises in defending women's rights in Pakistan, and provides free legal services to women in poverty.
Tayla Harris is an Australian rules footballer playing for Carlton Football Club in the AFL Women's league, and a professional boxer.
USSex trafficking survivor
Hollie is a survivor of sex trafficking from Columbus, Ohio, US. She was first sold by her mother at the age of 15 and was enslaved through drug-use for 17 years. With the help of an innovative court programme called CATCH Court - which spots criminals who are actually victims - she was able to escape in 2015. Most women who are sex trafficked in the US are branded with tattoos or scars and she has since transformed the tattoos on her own body.
Huang Wensi, 29, is one of a small but growing number of female boxers in China.
This year, artist Luchita Hurtado landed her first solo show in a public gallery - at the age of 98.
Tired of the pain she suffered wearing heels eight hours a day at work, Yumi decided to vent her frustration on Twitter.
Through a career in journalism and community social work, Asmaa has become the voice of Sierra Leone's voiceless.
Aranya uses beat poetry to address issues like gender equality, mental health and body positivity.
Katrina Johnston-Zimmerman is an urban anthropologist, working to make cities better places to live in.
Dr Gada Kadoda helps women in remote areas use solar power to bring electricity to their villages by training them as community engineers.
Born with a rare condition which left her with missing skin, Amy Karle grew up fascinated by the possibility of what the human body could be capable of with the right technology.
Self-proclaimed 'mother of all Sudanese martyrs', Ahlam's 17-year-old son was killed in a peaceful protest in 2013. Since then, Ahlam has dedicated her life to seeking justice for him, and fighting for the rights of those killed or 'disappeared' in Sudan.
In 2019, cancer researcher Fiona Kolbinger became the first woman ever to win the Transcontinental Race - one of the world's toughest cycling races.
Hiyori Kon, 21, is a sumo wrestling prodigy in a country where women are still barred from competing professionally.
Aïssata Lam set up the Youth Chamber of Commerce of Mauritania to support young women entrepreneurs struggling to access funding for their start-ups.
Soo Jung Lee
South KoreaForensic psychologist
Forensic psychology professor Soo Jung Lee has worked on numerous high-profile murder cases in South Korea. Based at Kyonggi University in Seoul, she has challenged the legal system, helping introduce an anti-stalking bill.
Fei-Fei Li arrived in the US from China at 16 with no English language skills, working part-time in her parents' dry-cleaning business.
An award-winning independent adult filmmaker exploring how women can help shape the future of porn.
Nominated for BBC 100 Women list by Jameela Jamil and the I Weigh community, Lauren Mahon is one third of the powerhouse trio "kicking cancer's arse" on BBC 5 Live's podcast You, Me & The Big C.
Julie is from Tanzania, one of five countries in the world with the highest estimated number Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) births annually. She has dedicated the past two decades to research on treatment for the disease and working to influence health policies so that individuals across Africa can access vital diagnostic tests and medicines.
Lisa Mandemaker is leading the team building a prototype artificial womb, in collaboration with the Máxima Medical Centre in Holland.
USClimate change activist
At 16, Jamie co-founded the Zero Hour movement, using social media to organise the first youth climate change marches in 25 cities, including Washington DC.
A formidable leader of the Afro-Colombian community, Francia Márquez spearheaded a 10-day, 350-mile women's march to the country's capital, to take back their ancestral land from illegal gold miners.
After being upskirted at a music festival, Gina Martin launched a campaign to make upskirting illegal in England and Wales. The law was changed this year after an 18-month legal fight.
Sarah Martins Da Silva
Sarah is one of Scotland's leading gynaecologists.
Singer Raja Meziane's political music video Allo le Système! has been viewed more than 35 million times on YouTube. Her anti-government songs tackling social injustice, alleged corruption and inequality have seen her forced into exile from Algeria.
Hailed as 'India's space woman', spaceship designer Susmita founded India's first space start-up.
DR CongoFresh food entrepreneur
When Benedicte looked around the Democratic Republic of Congo, she could see plenty of raw produce from potato to passionfruit, but still people were living in food poverty.
IndiaGender equality expert
Based at the International Center for Research on Women, Subhalakshmi has spent over 15 years working to improve gender equality in Asia.
Trang Nguyen grew up in Vietnam, confronted from a young age with monkeys chained up for sale on the streets and bears held to extract bile for traditional medicine. So she obtained a PhD in Biodiversity Management, and set up WildAct, a non-profit organisation which helps authorities monitor illegal wildlife trade markets.
Van Thi Nguyen
Van is co-founder of the Will to Live Center, which provides training for disabled people in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi.
Natasha is a yogini, a female master practitioner of yoga and wellness coach.
This year, aged 29, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez became the youngest woman ever to serve in the United States Congress. She grew up in the Bronx and volunteered as a campaigner in the 2016 Presidential elections.
Nicknamed 'the golden fish', in 2017 Farida became the first woman in Egypt to win a medal when she claimed bronze in the 50m butterfly at the FINA World Aquatics Championships.
Ashcharya Peiris was on her way home from work at a bank in Sri Lanka when a bomb blast left her blind in 2000. She lost her job to her disability, but ended up fulfilling her dream of becoming a fashion designer by describing her designs to a seamstress.
Fashion designer Danit once found herself at a conference with nothing to wear, so quickly designed a skirt on her laptop and 3D-printed it.
CanadaClean water advocate
Autumn Peltier has been campaigning for clean drinking water for indigenous people in Canada since she was just eight years old.
Swietenia Puspa Lestari
Swietenia founded the Divers Clean Action Foundation to clear marine debris in Indonesia. They now have 1,500 volunteers working across the island nation and South East Asia.
Megan Rapinoe is a two-time World Cup winner and co-captain of the US Women's National Team. She led the team to victory in the 2019 Women's World Cup, scoring some of the biggest goals of the tournament.
Onjali Rauf was recovering from life-saving surgery when the idea for her first book came to her.
ChinaClean water advocate
As a graduate student, Charlene Ren created MyH2O, a solution to the lack of clean drinking water in rural China.
Maria Ressa is an award-winning journalist from the Philippines who set up website Rappler to expose fake news.
Writer Djamila Ribeiro is one of the most influential figures in the Afro-Brazilian women's rights movement.
Jawahir Roble is the UK's first Muslim, black, female, hijab-wearing referee.
Professor Saliba is conducting world-leading research on polluted air. She grew up on her family's farm in rural Lebanon, but when civil war prompted a move to the city, she was awakened to the disturbing realities of air pollution.
KenyaDigital equality expert
Nanjira leads the World Wide Web Foundation in its bid to increase digital equality.
Biophysicist Zehra Sayers has been hailed as a beacon of hope for the Middle East (Nature journal) for her success in her contribution to bringing scientists from eight Middle Eastern countries together.
At 16, Hayfa founded not-for-profit Entrcrush, an online platform for future entrepreneurs where they could be matched with donors, and take e-courses in areas like management and accounting.
Computer scientist Noor Shaker left Syria for Europe in 2008 to follow her passion for Artificial Intelligence. After a successful decade in academia, she turned her skills toward entrepreneurial innovation. Motivated by her mother's fight against cancer, Shaker was compelled to bring her knowledge of AI to the medical world.
Inspired by her mum's determination to obtain a degree despite pressure to become a housewife, Bonita Sharma helps educate and empower women and girls in her native Nepal.
In the 1970s, she was part of a movement of women who threw their arms around trees to prevent them being felled - the original 'tree-huggers'.
When qualified doctor Pragati Singh started researching asexuality, she received messages from women who didn't want to have sex but were facing an arranged marriage.
Lawyer Lyubov Sobol investigates alleged corruption in Russia, documenting her work through social media and a YouTube channel with over a million subscribers.
Samah is a lawyer who has worked tirelessly in difficult circumstances since the war in Yemen started in 2015. She provides legal support to families whose children have 'disappeared'.
Self-taught screenwriter Kalista Sy's TV series Mistress of a Married Man sent shock waves through her home country when it was released earlier this year.
This summer, 22-year-old actress and director Bella Thorne released her own topless photos after a hacker threatened to leak them, saying, “It's my decision now, you don't get to take another thing from me.”
Veronique Thouvenot leads the Zero Mothers Die initiative.
SwedenClimate change activist
In August 2018, 15-year-old Greta Thurnberg skipped school to protest outside the Swedish parliament. What started as a one-person strike has since spread to a worldwide protest over climate change. Her actions have mobilised activists across the world, with millions of young people taking part in Fridays for Future.
Self-taught computer programmer Paola helped reverse 20,000 racially-biased drugs convictions by developing Data for Justice, a tool with an interactive map comparing police activity in white and minority neighborhoods.
At 95, poet Ida Vitale is winner of the Cervantes Prize, the most prestigious literary award in the Spanish-speaking world.
Purity is a modern day 'senga'. The role traditionally sees aunt-figures training brides-to-be in how to sexually satisfy their husbands.
Best-known for becoming New Zealand's youngest member of parliament in 1975 aged 23, Marilyn Waring is a pioneer of feminist economics, and author of the groundbreaking Counting for Nothing, which highlighted the value of womens' unpaid work.
Amy Webb is a futurist who advises government leaders and the CEOs of some of the world's largest companies on how to prepare for complex futures.
Sara Wesslin is a Skolt Sami journalist. The Sami are the only indigenous people in the EU.
USScholar of religion
Having studied everything from megachurch social media use to whether women are more religious than men, Gina Zurlo is an expert in religion statistics.
The BBC's 100 Women team drew up a shortlist based on names gathered by them and suggested by the BBC's network of World Service languages teams. We were looking for candidates who had made the headlines or influenced important stories over the past 12 months, as well as those who have inspiring stories to tell, achieved something significant or influenced their societies in ways that wouldn't necessarily make the news. The pool of names was then assessed against this year's theme - the Female Future - and measured for regional representation and due impartiality, before the final 100 were chosen.
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